"When I had attained the age of seventeen, my parents resolved that I should become a student at the university of Ingolstadt… At length the high white steeple of the town met my eyes.," Miraculous Victor Frankenstein said this words, or better: 1816 Mary Shelley wrote in her book about him. Though she never was in Ingolstadt, her famous story about the Frankenstein´s monster acts here. Ingolstadt was very famous that days.
It was called the “City of 100 towers”, until 1800 it had a famous University with the anatomy, there was much education here, it was a center of the Jesuits and the Counter-Reformation, the Illuminati and even Faust lived here.
1) City map:
If you go from the North to the South you have to cross the Danube somewhere. Ingolstadt hat in early times a very important bridge. From East to West there was a trade route.
In the North of Ingolstadt is the Altmühltal with a lovely landscape and Eichstätt. It is worth to have a day trip to visit. In the south you can find the flat Donaumoos. In the West and East there are the Donauauen. Ingolstadt seems to be in a sink.
As for history: The oldest thing to be found about Ingolstadt is from 2000 BC the Amber-Collier; Vallatum was a Celtic town now named Manching and Oberstimm . The famous Barthelmarkt is still the rest of a Roman market.
806 was the first official mention: Ingoldesstatt was an estate of Charlemagne which he donated to the monastery Niederalteich. It is not shure, if Ingoldesstatt was where now St. Moritz is or in Feldkirchen.
1242 the Bavarian Dukes Ludwig the Strict gave a city law and built the first city wall and a castle: the Herzogkasten. Also the Kreuztor, St. Moritz and St. Francis Church where built in this times; Ludwig der Bayer built a second city wall with 87 towers. It had 10 times more place than necessary and it shoudn´t be filled for over 600 years.
From 1392 on in the time of the the Dukes Stefan, Ludwig the hunchback and Ludwig the Bearded the New Castle, the Münster, and the Jesuits´ College were built.
1472-1800 Ingolstadt was the seat of the Bavarian State University. Beneath the Fort structure was built up with more towers you can even see nowerdays
1800 Ingolstadt was razed by Napoleon
1828 it was rebuilt as a garrison town and country fortress: Klenzepark, Glacis, Künettegraben, Cavaliers, fronts; Defense contractors are from this time
Since 1945 the car industry has taken over Ingolstadt: Auto Union, Audi; Many Refineries were here, Media-Saturn and Kaspersky have their centers in Ingolstadt
After the division of Bavaria in 1392 Stefan the Kneissel had a magnificent court in Ingolstadt. The Münster cathedral was built in 1425 by his son Ludwig the Bearded. Ludwig had helped his sister Isabeau de Baviere, (the wife of mad king Charles V, the opponent of Jeanne d'Arc) to reign hole France and then got Duke of little Ingolstadt. Ludwig the Bearded was not satisfied with this provincial town and was always longing for spiritual healing. So he built this church, where he wanted to be buried and 1000 people shoud eternaly pray for him. He made Ingolstadt a power center against Landshut, With his wife Anne of Bourbon he had a son: Louis the hunchback, which seemed to be too ugly. So he wanted his other handsome son Wiland to be the next Duke. Father and son fought a war against each other, hunchback Ludwig put his father into prison in Burghausen and then died. The forgotten inprisoned father dies some years later and was buried in Burghausen, his son was buried in this church. The enemies in Landhut became duke of Ingolstadt.
100 Years later the Münster got the Interiors, the towers where built much later because the money ran out.
Name: To the Beautiful Our Lady. This was originally the Name of a statue which was in the church. One day Ingolstadt had to sell the statue to pay there depts. The Münster ist the University Church of LMU which former was the University of Ingolstadt
The building ist 97 m long and 34 m wide, the roof tree trunks. The statue of Mary you can see ist 2,5 m high. The towers are built sqare to the building which seems to be typical French.
Inside you can see the picture of the Mother Thrice Admirable and the grave of Johannes Eck, the biggest enemy of Martin Luther. His house was that behind us.
The Jesuits came with 2 attempts to Ingolstadt: in 1555 and 1576. The new University needs professors and the Jesuits were well educated. They owned a third of Ingolstadt, set all professors and proclamates Catholizim and Counter-Reformation. They searches elite and new priests. The most famous were Petrus Canisius and Christoph Scheiner. The student´s congregation was constituted by the Jesuits.
4) Maria de Victoria:
The students´ Congragation was opened to citizens of the city. So thecitizes arose the Marian Congregation: 1732-1736 the church was built, unassuming from the outside, inside with beautiful stucco and ceiling fresco, altar ... Cosmas Damian and Quirin Asam Egid where the masters of this church.
Places to go: Suxul, Shamrock, Touch-Club, The golden, Steakhouse, Amadeus
Johann T'Serclaes von Tilly died here. He was an opponent of Gustavus Adolphus in the Sveden-war. There´s a big monstrance with his name in the Maria de Victoria-church
In this house Faustu lived for some months. He was a healer, alchemist, magician, soothsayer; "On Wednesday after Viti [17th June] 1528 is one which is called Dr. Jörg Faustus of Heidelberg said that he elsewhere devour his penny, and has sworn not to penalize those ademand for the authorities nor ape. "
7) Kaisheimer house:
Peter Apian lived her, then some of the rich Fugger and princes, Kaisheim Abbey bought it as a residence for its students; even Friedrich Schiller is said to have his residence in this house for one night
8) Franciscan Church:
It was built 1275 as the oldest Franciscan monastery north of the Alps. On the other side of the road there´s the nunnery Gnadenthal, The Schutter mother is in this church
Jesuit Library; university bookstore Siebert
9) Am Stein
A Legend: As the Munster was built the devil threw a stone to destroy it, but he did not target the chirch. The stone fell on the ground here. Take care and do not step on this stone or your day will be unlucky.
A big street to go shopping is Theresienstraße. You can also go shopping in Westpark-Center or in Ingolstadt village, the outlet-center. “Tagtraum” is one of the few alternative pubs in Ingolstadt. Another one is “Rosengasse” and Café Detter. We have also two Irish pubs. A lot of more pubs I will show to you on the way.
11) Fleißer memorial
Mariluise Fleißer (1901-1974) is Ingolstadts most famous writer. Her husband had a small shop in this building, but Marieluise Fleißer rather lived with Bert Brecht.
You can see the S-N and W-O- intersection and the former gates. In the East you see the new castle where you also can find the former Feldkirchner Gate
This is the mainroad to go shopping in Ingolstadt. You can also go shopping in Westpark or the factory outlet at Ingolstadt Village.
12) Ickstadt´s house:
Ickstadt was the inventor of the Realschule This house has the largest Baroque facade of a middle-class house
13) St. Moritz Church
The oldest church of Ingolstadt was built in 1234. Some say “Ingoldesstadt”, the old origin of Ingolstadt, was here. The church was rebuilt many times;
St. Moritz, Mauritius is the patron of Ingolstadt, as he was the patron of monastry Niederalteich. He has a curious animal on his shield: a kind of dragon which was called Pan-Thier. Some people made a panther out of the beast and so the Ice-Hockey-Team of Ingolstadt is called the panters. As for sports: Ingolstadt has a Icehockey-Team and a Fottball-Team that play in Germany´s premier league. You ca watch the games in the Saturn-Arena or in the Audi-Sportspark.
The Pfeifturm is an old watchtower.
15) Altes Rathaus:
The old townhall was 1882 assembled of four houses. It has got an historic boardroom. If you need something from the town council you have to ask in the new building.
This place had many names: Gouvernmentsplatz, Adolf-Hitler-Platz; Bombing in World War II drew a wide glade into the old city from here to the new theater. The buildings they filles it with are mostly made of cement.
This ist the reproduction of a model of Ingolstadt from 1573. You can see the two big streets, rests of the first city wall and the second city wall whit the big bastions. The Glacis is a free space all around the second wall in order to see the enemies. Now it´s a big park.
18) “Duke´s Box” Herzogsakasten
1250 Duke Ludwig the Severe built it as a first castle. It formerly had 8 floors. Now the liberary is in this building.
19) New Castle:
Ludwig the Bearded brought money and ideas from France. Ludwig was the brother of Queen Isabeau de Baviere and was very discontent to be duke of this little village. The people of Ingolstadt where also discontent with him as he spent much money on his court. So he had to defend his new castle against his townsmen. The towers are square to the building which can also be seen at the Münster. Normally the Army Museum is in this castle. As Napoleon slept there you can see the exhibition “Napoleon und Bayern”
20) City Theatre
Formerly the theater was on Rathausplatz but it was bombed away. In 1966 Hardt-Walther Hämer built this concrete building they called the oil opera. It´s communicative, but all grey in Neo-Classical-medieval forms as a fortress; There also are several small venues and a very modern ensemble. Under this parking-place there is a huge shelter for an atomic war.
Leo von Klenze 1850 planed the largest construction site in Bavaria for 25 years, a huge state fortress for the Bavarian king. The garden show 1992 left a beautiful park.
Behind the park there´s the Wonnemar and the Saturn-Arena.
For old inhabitants of Ingolstadt the Danunbe doesn´t belong to the town. It was often relocated, but always stayed outside the city. The creek of Ingolstadt is the Schutter, that former ran through the city but 1971 they brought it in a channel so you can´t see it no more. Real inhabitants of Ingolstadt are baptized with the water of the Schutter.
In the Medieval there was a Jewish settlement here. They dispelled the Jews 1450 and built a Augustinian Church at this place. In WW II it was destroyed by bombs as they thought the Nazis had their headquarter in this monastery. More than 100 people died though the Nazi-headquarter was in the Franziscan church. The lines on the floor show remind of the destroyed monastery.
Nowadays you can have a snack at the market and on some days you can buy fresh food over there an the weekly market.
The Old Town Cinemas in Ingolstadt are smaller than the CineStar in the Westpark, but the program is less mainstream. On Monday they show the newest films in a sneak preview. In the Audi-Cinema at the Audi-Forum you can find Arthouse Cinema.
Ingolstadt had many monasteries: This one was built around 1350 for the sick for healing. Today it´s the technical town court. The church you can visit best in advent.
In this street you find all kind of food. The oldest inn of Ingolstadt is the Daniel. For cabaret you got to the Altstadttheater in this street or to “Neue Welt”.
27) High school (former University)
In 1492 the University of Bavaria was foundet in Ingolstadt. 3 years you had to study Liberal Arts (MA), then you could choose a doctorate in law, theology, medicine or lectures. The studnets had their own jurisdiction. Celtis, Aventine, Apian, Canisius, Scheiner, Fuhs, Reuchlin and Eck tought here. In 1800 the university was moved to Landshut, than to Munich and was namend Ludwig Maximilian Universität.
A good idea for poor students: Dorm against prayer. The students living in this seminary didn´t pay, but pray for their room. Later a Brewery took place here. The Purity Law for beer was proclaimed in 1516 in Ingolstadt.
Adam Weishaupt was Canon law professor in Ingolstadt. After the Jesuit were banned 1877 he established a secret club in 1876: As Freemasons they wanted to subvert the state with liberal ideas: Knigge, Goethe, Herder, Montgelas where members of the Illuminates. They had their headquarter in House 23 in Ludwigsstraße and a owl watched them form the other side of the street. Some say Weishaupt emigrated to North America and founded the United States with his nickname George Washington.
This tower was executioner apartment and prison
31) Swimming pools
Here you can find an indoor and outdoor pool. The Scherberlberg is a hill made out of the bricks from the second town wall when demolated in 1800. One of the biggest beer gardens you find in the Schutterhof. In Bavaria in summer you spend your evenings in the beer garden eg. The MO, Ponschab, Glockn
32) Alte Anatomie
In 1723 they build an anatomical theater for the University. Today you can visit the Museum of Medical History here as well as an anatomic garden with medicinal plants.
33) Neue Welt
The Neue Welt is a cabaret with excellent whiskeys and Goulash soup. It´s a center for the Jazz Days and Cabaret Days. Other cabarets are the Altstadttheater. There are stages for local artists also in the Westpark and near the station “Halle 9”.
The name oft he streets remind oft the Schutter: Brunnhaus, Griesmühl, Schleifmühl, Am Bachl. Here the creek flew into the town.
This old gate was built in 1385 as one of four gates of the Bastion. Today it´s empty as an accommodation for exibitions.
In this area you can go down by night: Mo, Sausa, Engelwirt and Glockn are pubs for young people.